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Full text of "Joint bulletin"

JOINT BULLETINS NOS. 4 AND 5 



Vermont Botanical and 



Bird Clubs 



APRIL, 1919 



Published Annually by the Clubs 



MAY 9 1921 



JOINT BULLETINS NOS. 4 AND 5 



Vermont Botanical and 

Bird Clubs 



APRIL, 1919 



Published Annually by the Clubs 



burlington 

Free Press Printing Company 

1919 



OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury. 
VICE-PRESIDENT, Harry F. Perkins, Burlington. 
SECRETARY, George P. Burns, Burlington. 
TREASURER, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington. 
EDITOR OF BULLETIN, George L. Kirk, Rutland. 



VERMONT BOTANICAL AND BIRD CLUBS 

Joint Bulletins Nos. 4 and 5 April, 1919 

One copy of this bulletin is sent to each member. Extca copies 
of this as well as copies of previous bulletins may be obtained of Mrs. 
Flynn at Burlington for 10 cents each. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Editorial 4 

Treasurer's Report 4 

Meetings of the Clubs, Nellie F. Flynn 5 

Plants New to Vermont Collected at Woodstock, Nellie F. Flynn 7 

Additions to West River Valley Flora, Leston A. Wheeler 8 

Along Highway and Cross-Country in Oklahoma, Alice E. Bacon 8 

Night Observation of Birds, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 12 

Golden-Winged Warblers Summering in Rutland, Duane E. Kent 15 

Some New Stations for Rare Plants in Northeastern Vermont, Inez 

Addie Howe 15 

Four Summer Meetings of the Hartland Nature Club, Mrs. A. B. 

Morgan 19 

A Word Concerning Xanthiums, Nellie F. Flynn 20 

The Woodstock Bird Club 21 

Bird Lists 

Records for St. Johnsbury, 1917, Inez Addie Howe 21 

Notes for 1918 25 

Bird Migration at Stamford, Mary A. Sanford 25 

The Rutland List 26 

Utilization of Our Native Fruits, Mrs. A. B. Morgan 26 

Notes 28 

In Memoriam 

Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, Harold Goddard Rugg 32 

Elroy Kent, George L. Kirk 32 



4 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

EDITORIAL 

Like many other organizations the Vermont Botanical Club and 
the Vermont Bird Club were inactive during a part of 1917 and all of 
1918 on account of the war in Europe. The epidemic which visited 
the state made it seem best not to attempt to call together for meet- 
ings even the few people who were not too busy with war or relief 
work to have attended so no material was at hand for use in a bulletin 
in 1918. 

It has been thought best to combine Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 in this 
issue, publishing the various papers at what would have been the normal 
time for the 1918 Bulletin. 

The clubs invite contributions of scientific or popular articles re- 
lating to the different phases of the natural history of Vermont from 
all persons who have the interest of the state at heart. So far only 
the plants, the birds and the mammals of the state have bene listed. 
It is to be hoped that some person will later catalogue the mollusks, 
reptiles, butterflies, moths and other forms of life. 



TREASURER'S REPORT 
VERMONT BIRD CLUB 

RECEIPTS 

Cash on hand Jan. 26, 1917 $ 21.19 

Annual dues 92.52 

Bulletin .10 

Total $ 113.81 

EXPENDITURES 

One-half bill for printing Joint Bulletin No. 3 $ 30.48 

One-half for typewriting for bulletin 1.50 

Postage 20.07 

Two years' dues to National Association of Audobon Societies. . 10.00 

Printing programs, cards, receipts, etc 9.52 

One-half yearly dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 1.50 

Envelopes .82 

Total $ 73.89 

Cash on hand July 6, 1918 39.92 

$ 113.81 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 5 

VERMONT BOTANICAL CLUB 

RECEIPTS 

Cash on hand Jan. 26, 1917 $ 105.9G 

Annual dues 125.50 

From librarian 5.64 

Bulletins 1.80 

Club pins 2.60 

Total $ 241.50 

EXPENDITURES 

Lecturer and expenses $ 32.00 

One-half bill for printing Joint Bulletin No. 3 30.49 

One-half bill for typewriting for bulletin 1.50 

Postage 33.14 

Printing programs, cards, receipts, etc 9.28 

Dues to N. E. F. of N. H. S 4.50 

Subscription to Rhodora 1.50 

Envelopes .83 

Total $ 113.24 

Cash on hand July 6, 1918 128.2C 

$ 241.50 

Life membership fund $ 140.00 

Accrued interest Jan., 1917 11.52 

Total $ 151.52 

Nellie F. Flynn. 



MEETINGS OF THE CLUBS 

THE SUMMER MEETING OF 1917 

Nellie F. Flynn 

This meeting of the club was held at Mount Mansfield July 7 to 9. 
There were about 30 members present, most of whom assembled the 
evening of the 9th at Green Mountain Inn, Stowe. On Tuesday we 
started by automobile and wagon for the Summit House on Mount 
Mansfield, which was reached shortly after noon. 



6 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

After a good dinner a trip was taken to the highest point of the 
mountain, the Chin. The rare high mountain plants, the diapensia, 
Diapensia Lapponica, the mountain blueberries and cranberry, Yac- 
'iniiim uliginosum, V. caespitosum,, V. pennsylvanicum var. angusti- 
-folium and V. Vitis-Iclea. were all seen besides several carices and 
other plants of high altitudes. The orchis, Listera convallarioides was 
found in the swamp near the hotel. 

The evening was occupied with a sunset party on the side of the 
Nose and a business meeting and social hour. 

Wednesday morning all hands started for Smugglers' Notch, most 
of us on foot by the Long Trail; the rest, not up to the walk, were 
conveyed by team. 

The more strenuous members climbed to the foot of the cliffs on 
either side of the Notch and were rewarded by the three mountain 
saxifrages, Saxifraga Aizoon, S. Aizoides. and S. oppositifolia, the rare 
ferns, Woodsia glabella, and W. alpina, and Asplenium viride, the hem- 
lock parsley, Conioselinum chinense, the fleabane, Erigeron hyssopi- 
folius, and the grass, Fastuca ovina var. brevifolia. 

After lunching and botanizing around the big spring, where Listera 
convallarioides was again collected, we started for Stowe, stopping 
again on our way to visit Bingham Falls and shortly had turned our 
faces homeward after another of our highly interesting and entertain- 
ing meetings. 

The Summer Meeting of 1918 

The members of the Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs to the num- 
ber of 3 5 gathered at Child's Tavern at Wilmington, the evening of 
July 9. Next day several more were added to our number so that in 
all 25 members were present. The 10th was spent in a trip to West 
Dover, botanizing along the Deerfield valley. Rain drove us home early 
in the afternoon. Interesting sedges, blackberries and the pearlwort, 
Sagina procumbens, were found, among other things. 

The forenoon of the 11th a trip was made to Lake Sadawga in 
Whitingham to see the floating islands. No boat was available to get 
to them so we had to be content with one anchored to the shore but 
otherwise with all of the characteristics of the floating ones. Here we 
found the usual shrubs, sedges and orchids of sphagnum swamps and, 
what was best of all, the arrow arm, Peltandra virginica. Rain came 
again as we drove back to dinner. In the afternoon we were out again 
to Ray pond only to have the rain beat us. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 7 

The 12th was a beautiful day and we climbed Haystack mountain 
for the beautiful view and the good botanizing along the way. Many 
interesting things were seen and collected but nothing particularly new 
was found. The blackberry specialists may have something to report 
later. 

A good time was had in spite of the rain and the hotel accommoda- 
tions were excellent. 



PLANTS NEW TO VERMONT COLLECTED AT 

WOODSTOCK 

Nellie F. Flynn 

Miss Elizabeth Billings is making an herbarium of the plants of 
Woodstock and the past summer (1918) Miss E. M. Kittridge of the 
New York Botanical garden staff did the collecting and mounting for 
her. Miss Kittridge brought me in June specimens of plants new to 
Vermont that had been found by her and former collectors for Miss 
Billings. These have been deposited in the University of Vermont her- 
barium. 

The plants are the chickweed, Stella?*ia strictifolia (collected by 
Mrs. Porter) with the comment written on the sheet that it is what 
has been going under the name 8. longipes but that true longipes has 
obtuse sepals. It might be mistaken for S. graminea or S. longifolia. 

The heather was collected by Miss Kittridge but was first dis- 
covered on Mount Tom by a maid in the Billings household. A new 
yarrow, Achillea ligustica, was found growing in a patch of common 
yarrow. It attracted Miss Kittridge's attention because of the darker 
green color of the leaves. The pigweeds, Chenopodium leptophyllum, 
collected by Miss Kittridge by the roadside, and C. lanceolatum,, found 
by Mrs. Porter, were in the bunch as were Habenaria liyperborea var. 
huronensis (not in Gray's Manual but determined by New York Botan- 
ical garden), Thalictrum purpurascens, collected by Mrs. Porter. 

Miss Kittridge also presented two colored photographs to the club 
herbarium, one of Pogonia affinis alone and one of that plant and 
P. verticilata together. These are from plants collected on Long Island 
but are interesting as the plants are very rare in Vermont, only one 
plant of affinis having been collected (by Mrs. Holt at Burlington). 
P. verticilata is known from only three stations and there are years 
together when no plants are found at these stations. 



8 . Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

ADDITIONS TO WEST RIVER VALLEY FLORA 

Leston A. Wheel t r 

The following plants new or rare in West River valley were 
collected in 1917: Oxalis filipes. Brookline and Townshend; Hieraciunt 
floribundum. Brookline; Antennaria canadensis. Asplenium angusti- 
folium., Arabis hirsuta. Jamaica; Aspidimn spinulosum, Brattleboro:< 
Aconitum Xapellus, Newfane and Stratton, the latter on Deerfield river 
section; Potentilla pumila, Newfane, Saxtons River; Selaginella apus. 
Lycopodium clavatum var. monostachyon, Sagina procumbens. Phlox 
paniculata, Newfane; Polystichum Braunii. (W. H. Blanchard's station), 
Medicago satiua. Lychnis clialcedonica, Galium verum. Townshend. 

The following notes may prove interesting: Ophioglossum vulga- 
turn, was collected from 16 colonies during the past season, all new to 
me; one colony, beside Grout pond in Stratton, altitude 2,225 feet, 
produced the largest and finest fronds that I ever saw. 

Two plants of Botrychium obliquum, with double fertile fronds 
were found. One frond of the type and one of the variety were col- 
lected from the same root of Polystichum acrostichoides. One frond of 
Osmunda regalis. measuring 24 by 54 inches, w r as collected and one of 
Onoclea scnsibilis with the fertile frond 26 inches and the sterile 49 
inches in height were found. A beautifully dense feathery form of 
Lycopodium clavatum was found in Newfane. The red flowered form 
of Lillium canadense was collected in Townshend growing with the 
type and with an intermediate form. 



ALONG HIGHWAY AND CROSS-COUNTRY IN 

OKLAHOMA 

Alice E. Bacon 

It is a far cry from Bradford, Vt., to Lawton, Okla. Lawton is in 
the extreme southwestern part of the state, three miles from Fort Sill 
and Camp Doniphan, which are on a government reservation of some 
70,000 acres, which only a year ago was a paradise for flower lovers. 
Where now barracks and tenches, aviation fields and observation towers, 
rifle ranges and cannon, soldiers in the United States artillery and 
recruits in the process of training reign supreme, only a short time 
ago was largely given over to the prairie dog and jack rabbit and Molly 
cottontail and the coyote, and was covered with a carpet of flowers 
that rivaled California's boasted fields. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 9 

It is not my intention to even enumerate all the flowers seen 
and collected during a stay of eight months, but only to tell of those 
that for their abundance, beauty or novelty impressed themselves on 
my mind. Many species familiar to us in Vermont are there in pro- 
fusion; others cultivated in gardens here are there seen in their native 
habitat growing in a luxuriance undreamed of north. 

The all-day ride across the state from the northeastern to the 
southwestern corner was, even in October, a thing to be remembered 
for beauty and interest. The soil of the state is in the main a red clay, 
varying in tint from light rose to vivid vermilion. This alone would 
dazzle the eye, but far and near were patches of golden sunflowers, 
rudbeckias, coreopsis, purple ironweed, blazing star, goldenrod, asters, 
boltonias and hosts of others, impossible to identify from a moving 
train. One, growing quite close to the ground in vivid purple mats, 
was later identified as a very beautiful star thistle, which dries per- 
fectly for winter bouquets, keeping both shape and color. 

Every cabin and dugout, ranch house and water tank, was gay 
with cypress vines and nasturtiums, morning glories and moon flow- 
ers; immense castor oil plants shaded the windows and great beds of 
cannas and caladium and chrysanthemums surrounded the way sta- 
tions. It was color, color everywhere under the brilliant sunshine and 
cloudless skies of Oklahoma. Great fields of cotton with its bursting 
bolls, feterita and milo maize with their peculiar heads of ripening 
grain, Sudan grass and cane and Kaffir corn all added to the charm of 
a novel and most interesting panorama. Shortly before Christmas we 
began to see the mistletoe, which is very abundant around Lawton and 
is shipped north in large quantities. Wagon loads are sold in the streets 
and the large pearly berries are most beautiful and are borne in great 
profusion. Its favorite host seems to be the oak, although it scarcely 
disdains any tree on which it may obtain foothold; I saw trees on which 
no natural foliage could be seen, so densely was it covered with the 
lovely parasite. 

Winters are short in Oklahoma and early in March the landscape 
was suddenly transformed by the blossoming of thousands of peach 
trees, plums, apricots, prunes and cherries, the apple coming a little 
later. Along the roadsides and over the rocks were thickets of wild 
Chickasaw plums not over three or four feet in height and a mass of 
bloom, and the brooksides were suddenly blue with Viola conspersa, 
growing in abundance rarely seen in the north, and anemones seemed 
to be everywhere. 



10 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

White erythronium, many of the flowers pale pink, carpeted the 
richer uplands and along the water-courses the red-hud, one of our 
most beautiful flowering trees, flaunted its crimson banners, a challenge 
to the eye for a long distance; one creek in particular had its bank 
for miles crowded with this exquisite tree literally loaded with flow- 
ers, each tree a perfect bouquet. 

A little later a drive out into the oil country found the country 
bright blue with millions upon millions of the flowers of the blue-eyed 
grass growing in unbelievable profusion. A few miles farther showed 
milk vetch and Nothoscorclium, Gilia linearis, Verbena Canadensis, and, 
in the moister places, butter-weed gave variety to the scene. 

About the middle of April, Nature suddenly went mad and poured 
out blossoms with such lavishness and in such a variety of colors one's 
head reeled in trying to see all. Baptisia tinctoria, Astragalus and 
other leguminosae, Amsonia, Zizia aurea, shone cream color or purple 
or blue or gold; Oxalis violaceae spread an exquisite violet carpet in 
the meadows, the deep blue spiderwort of our northern old-fashioned 
gardens grew everywhere boldly by the roadsides, and zephyranthes 
gaily nodded their dainty pink and white bells in the wind. Every day 
brought flowers new and charming, but one of the most beautiful of 
all was an evening primrose, 0. laciniata var. grandiflora, with low- 
growing, widely-spreading plants often two and one-half to three feet 
in diameter and absolutely covered with great, sweet-scented snowy 
blossoms glowing in the dusk like fairy dancing grounds, and visited 
by the fairies in the shape of large, velvety moths that came in 
myriads to feast on honey-dew. 

Scarcely less interesting is 0. pallida, a taller growing plant with 
its white flowers turning to an exquisite pink. At this time we began 
to note a verbena — V. Mpinnatifida, like our garden verbenas, only of 
a bushy rather than a trailing habit, and bearing countless heads of 
flowers in all shades of purple and mauve. 

Toward the last of April two mallows became very conspicuous, the 
Callirhoe, or poppy mallow of our gardens, growing in the clay along 
the dusty roadsides and showing great bouquets of bright crimson 
blooms each from two and one-half to four inches in diameter; and the 
false mallow, M. coceineum, in much the same habitat and in even 
greater abundance, with smaller flowers, bright orange rather than 
"pink-red." It was strikingly in evidence, especially on the reserva- 
tion, while the red-seed dandelion was common on the city's outskirts. 

Another interesting plant found at this time was the Psoralea eseu- 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 11 

lenta, the pomme de blanche or the pomme de prairie of the early voy- 
agers, with its long edible root, and its sister plant, P. tenuiflora. 

Early in May the wild hyacinth, Camassia esculenta, the quamash 
of the Indians, was filling the air with its fragrance, growing freely 
in certain localities, and giving the effect of a delicate lavender mist, 
while its near relative, the wild garlic, although most beautiful to 
look upon, was so offensive when gathered we were content to admire 
it at a distance. The bulb of the quamash is greedily eaten by the 
Indians and when roasted is agreeable to the civilized palate. The 
compositae were now forging to the front and gaillardias, in nowise 
different from those in our gardens, sprang up by the thousand over 
the prairies and pentstemons in variety were thickly scattered through 
the pastures and by the wayside. Calylophis serrulata, Gaura filipes, 
Stenosiphon linifoliiis represented the Evening Primrose family; also 
0. linifolia and 0. glauca were very conspicuous on the waste lands 
around Lawton. Great patches of rather dirty white attracted at- 
tention in the wilder parts of the reservation, and on examination 
proved to be white sage; while Chamaesaraoha sordida, Solanum 
elaeagni folium or white horse-nettle, the tomatillo — Physalis Ixocarpa. 
with its curious fruit were reasonably abundant on waste ground. 

By the middle of May, the Spanish bayonet was throwing up its 
great spikes of cream-colored flowers, Oxytropis was royal purple, deep 
violet and occasionally white, and the standing cypress was coming 
into flower in but one locality, out at Medicine Park, Lawton's summer 
resort; a large flowered pentstemon was becoming common in the pas- 
tures, and blue toad-flax along sandy stretches; Vicia ludoviciana was 
covering low wayside bushes with a wealth of purple bloom. Another 
of our garden favorites was growing by the millions among the rocks 
of the Wichita mountains — the golden coreopsis, with the deep red and 
red-brown centres, and others solid yellow blossoms flaunting from 
every crevice and waving defiantly in the wind; sensitive brier was 
fairly common and the wild white larkspur thrust its tall torches 
through the undergrowth. A rather odd flower was found at this time, 
the Oxybaphus nyctagineus or vinegar saucer with its curious and con- 
spicuous involucre. Phlox paniculata carpeted the ground in dense 
patches literally covered with pink or white flowers. 

Cacti were much in evidence the last of May, but only two species, 
Mamillaria missouriensis var. caespitosa and the Prickly Pear, the 
latter very common and a most uncomfortable neighbor in spite of the 
beauty of the flowers of primrose and buff and golden yellow; notwith- 



12 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

standing its loveliness it is unloved, although its fruit is edible and 
is sometimes preserved by the housewife. 

My last find was a tiny bit of rather soiled-looking cottcn flannel, 
which Prof. M. L. Fernald of Harvard University kindly identified as 
Erax multicaulia var. Drummondii; it is not described in Gray's Manual 
and had never before been listed from Oklahoma. During my stay I 
did not find any orchids nor did I see any ferns; the latter probably*- 
because that section is quite dry and there is little standing or running 
water as compared with Vermont. 

That part of the state has not been opened for white settlement 
many years and the flora for the most part remains as of old. But 
conditions are rapidly changing and the wild flowers will disappear as 
in older states. 

At present it is a paradise for the botanist and it should be 
thoroughly exploited before it is too late. My observations were most 
superficial and by no means represent the reward of an active, prac- 
tical botanist, yet more than once I came home with 20 or more new 
finds, nearly all seen from a moving automobile. 



NIGHT OBSERVATION OF BIRDS 

Mrs. A. B. Morgan 

"Where do birds spend the night?"' is a question I might never 
have been able to answer even in a small degree had it not been 
that for the past 10 years I have lived almost in the woods and have 
occupied a sleeping porch from early spring to late fall. I have also 
discovered that an automobile driven at night reveals the sleeping 
quarters of many birds by startling them from their perch. 

Several times while passing a rocky height that might well be in 
the Alps themselves, thrushes have flashed across our path, and on the 
same road we have surprised a screech owl in his hunting. A pair of 
veeries have nested for several years just across the road, directly in 
front of the house, and evidently the male has its particular tree down 
the lane where it perches, since invariably when the car passes it at 
night, out he flies. That other birds select and keep the same general 
perch for the season I must infer from my observations, though to 
what extent, it is unwise to speculate. A cuckoo has occupied an elm 
tree near the house successively and often calls softly during the pass- 
ing hours of the night. This characteristic of the bird is indicated by 
the following item: "The city man had gone camping with his six- 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 13 

year-old sen," says Harper's Magazine. "The two were in the depths of 
a forest when the youngster startled the father by the following: 'Dad, 
I can hear the cuckoo but I can't see any clock.' " 

For nine years, recognized by its song, the same song sparrow came 
back to its home in "The Highlands" garden and at night perched 
high in the crab-apple tree that stands at the end of the piazza. Often 
just at midnight he would send forth his clear, sweet notes that in the 
stillness seemed emphasized and purified. This year he came no more — 
a new songster, not half so sweet, was in the garden, and no notes of 
his sounded from the crab-apple tree. Instead a white-throated sparrow, 
that with its mate has nested for the first time near the house, revealed 
frequently that he is one of the finest of night singers. I was interested 
to read the following in a recent novel touching upon Idaho bird life: 
"What is the bird that sings far into the night?" 
"The bird that says 'Sweet, sweet, please listen to me, won't you?" 
"Yes, or something equally as plaintive, at any rate." 
"It's the white-crowned sparrow. You'll hear it through the dark- 
est nights. Its song has all the somber quality of the dark hours. It's 
our American nightingale." 

This is not the generally accepted bird to bear that title as to 
the veery has often been referred to as much, and on June evenings 
frequently sings from twilight into the night. Sometimes in our near- 
by sugar-bush the three species — wood, hermit and veery — are singing 
in turn, and as the shadows deepen the voice of the hermit recedes 
into the deep woods, then the "quit, quit" of the wood announces 
its departure, leaving the veery still singing. On rare occasions it 
slips into a low-branched cherry tree near my window where I can 
hear its undertones, and see the pulsing of its throat. At such times 
the depth and beauty of its notes could surely win it the title of the 
"American Nightingale." 

The oven bird is one of the most striking of the night singers, and 
only reveals its daytime self by the abrupt ending to its love song with 
the conventional "teacher, teacher." For many weeks I hear it almost 
nightly, the ascending and descending notes vibrant with ecstacy and 
so sharp as to awaken one from sleep. 

Near at hand in the syringa bush, chipping sparrows pass the 
night, and this year after the little ones were raised the whole happy 
family would chatter to each other as they stirred in their sleep. Chest- 
nut-sided warblers that built in the lane perched in the grape vine, 
as their twitterings announced, and a pair of robins perched as well as 
nested in the big maple whose protecting branches reach to the piazza. 



14 



Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 



During our first year ar. "The Highlands" a pair of screech owls came 
often to this tree, and I learned that they have many additional 
notes other than the familar "Who-o-o-o." They converse with each 
other, often making a sobbing or whining sound, or a sweet whistle. 
Our occupancy of the house has sent them back to the deep woods, 
whence we hear, also, the hoot of the big horned owl. 

One of the interesting things I have noted is the regularity with' 
which birds go to their nightly rest. I have tried the experiment of 
feeding my chickadees particularly appetizing morsels at close of day, 
but invariably when the shadows deepen they are off as by magic, and 
at this time of year, never later than 4.30. In the morning they always 
appear from the same direction in the woods below, and I have little 
doubt, occupy one of the many woodpeckers' holes with which the trees 
abound. 

For several years one of my greatest pleasures has been to watch 
a flock of bluebirds, during late summer and early fall, winging their 
way each night across our valley to a wooded hillside that long receives 
the rays of the setting sun. As is well known, the call of the blue- 
bird slightly more plaintive, perhaps, in fall than spring, is one of its 
chief charms, and this flock calling softly in their evening flight, which 
is timed almost to a minute, adds color and joy to the day. 

All are familiar with the evening flight of the crows and know 
that they have their established rookeries and that migrating birds 
in spring occupy the same 'roosts" from year to year. For the past five 
years I have observed one of these not far from here in a small maple 
grove bordering a meadow. This year such numbers of robins and black- 
birds assembled there that various reports came to me that there were 
thousands of birds to be seen on the meadow in the early morning. At 
night the medley of sounds that came from that quarter was truly 
marvelous, and above it sounded the call notes of the sentinels that 
were beating "tattoo." Foggy nights in the fall may so confuse migrat- 
ing birds, that another opportunity may be afforded to pick out in the 
confusion of sounds the call notes of thrushes, robins, vireos or spar- 
rows, and to find these same birds feeding in shady lanes the next 
morning. 

It has been a satisfying discovery to me that the birds that l see 
so familiarly by day about "The Highlands" are in the nearby trees 
at night, and that their sleep seems not to be disturbed by anything 
more serious than an exuberance of feeling that finds expression in 
sleepy twitterings or thrilling song. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 15 

GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLERS SUMMERING IN 

RUTLAND 

Duane E. Kent 

For the past few years singing males of the golden-winged warb- 
ler have been seen in Rutland county. On June 1, 1913, G. L. Kirk 
of Rutland and myself heard singing in a thicket at Muddy Pond, near 
the city of Rutland, a strange bird which we afterwards learned was a 
golden-winged warbler. I did not hear the song again until May 30, 
1915, when I was at the pond once more. A male was heard singing 
and was seen. During the entire time that I was there, making a futile 
search for the nest, 5 a. m. to 11 a. m., the bird was in song almost 
continually, either in the alders or perched 40 to 50 feet from the 
ground in an elm tree. On June G I made another visit to the place and 
heard the bird singing, but was again unsuccessful in finding the nest. 

On June 11, 1916, R. Clyde Spaulding of Rutland and the writer 
were at the pond once more. This time we saw two male golden- 
wings and heard them sing. One perched frequently in the favorite elm. 
We made a careful search through the whole locality for the nest but 
did not find it. We did, however, find an old nest which I could not 
identify as belonging to any species with which I was familiar and I 
decided it was the nest built by the golden-wing in 1915. 

This year, 1918, I was at the pond on May 30 but found no golden- 
wings but about a third of a mile distant I heard three of the birds 
singing. They were in an alder thicket, bordering a pasture. A few 
days later Mr. Kirk visited this ground and hear one bird sing. No 
nest could be found. 

On May 31, 1918, I collected a specimen of the golden-winged warb- 
ler near Fair Haven for Mr. Kirk and I heard another singing at that 
time. 

On May 29, 1918, G. H. Ross of Rutland saw one of these warb- 
lers, a male, at Castleton. 

So far no one in this locality has seen either a female or an imma- 
ture golden-winged warbler. 



SOME NEW STATIONS FOR RARE PLANTS IN 
NORTHEASTERN VERMONT 

Inez Addie Howe 

We are all familiar with the proverb that "all things come to him 
who waits" but in the case of the botanist it should read "all things 



Hi Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

come to him who searches,'" searches carefully with eyes that see in- 
telligently the area explored. Each year of my work as botanist 
at the Fairbanks museum has been rich in discoveries of plants new 
to Vermont and new stations for many rare species previously re- 
ported from other sections of the state. 

Owing to a combination of circumstances very favorable for my 
work, the season of 1917 was the most profitable yet. Because of the ' 
lateness of the spring the flowers did not blossom plentifully until my 
lessons with the schools were finished. My collecting trips were 
planned to cover definite areas, making a canvass of all the plants 
found growing on each expedition with the view of compiling a flora 
of St. Johnsbury and vicinity at some future day. W. E. Balch, who 
commenced a series of photographs of the orchids of Vermont in 191G. 
was employed at the museum during the past season, and, wishing to 
revise and complete his series of photographs as far as possible, very 
ably assisted the general botanical work of the museum while photo- 
graphing the orchids in their habitats. To his efforts much credit is 
due for the long list of new stations for Vermont plants that I have 
to present this year. 

Several species of plants sent me for identification proved to le 
rare and unusual, one AlchemiUa pratensis, sent in by Miss Mary L. 
Wheeler of Barton, being new to the state. Galium. Mollugo and Galium 
verum were sent from Barnet, G. verum coming from the same station 
from which it was recorded in 1916. Stachys palustris was sent from 
West Danville and later found growing profusely in a pasture west of 
the museum. 

My herbarium specimens of many of the rare species which I shall 
mention are meagre in the extreme as I am fully convinced that unless 
botanists use more discretion in collecting in the future than they have 
in the past that all of the rarer species will soon come to exist in 
herbaria only. Such seems to be the case with Orchis' rotundifoUa in 
Vermont so far as I can ascertain, by my own efforts or by corre- 
spondence with other botanists, and this is only one of many rare 
forms on the verge of extinction if not already gone. 

Instead of drying my rare plants, if I find them growing where 
there is danger of their being uprooted or destroyed, I carry them 
home and plant them in a locality as nearly as possible like the one 
from which they came. In this way I have a fine collection started, 
that "neither moth nor rust can corrupt'' and I trust that thieves may 
not pass my trespass signs to steal them. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 17 

Two very rare ferns Botrychium Lunaria and B. lanceolatum var. 
angustisegmentum were found growing sparingly in St. Johnsbury, the 
former in a dry, open pasture, the latter in high maple woods. I 
found all of the species of botrychium that are listed in the Flora 
growing within five miles of the museum, also several new stations for 
Ophioglossum vulgatum. 

In making a special study of the orchids of Caledonia county, we 
found many new stations for all common species. The best find of the 
season was a small colony of plants of Epipactis clecipiens, the first re- 
ported for Vermont, so far as I know. A very large area of sturdy 
plants of Epipactis pubescens was found in old growth hemlock woods, 
the first station known in Caledonia county. E. tesselata and E. 
repens var. ophioides were fairly common in dry fir and hemlock 
woods in many sections of our town. 

Habenaria Andreivsii, H. leucophaea and H. clavellata grow spar- 
ingly in Danville in open moist meadow land and very large colonies 
of H. lacera were found in similar localities in St. Johnsbury. H. 
dilatata var. media was found sparingly in sphagnum bogs in Peacham 
and St. Johnsbury. 

Every species of Spiranthes listed in the Flora grows on my own 
place as well as 12 other orchids, making a total of 17 species on 15 
acres. 

In my territory covered last season I was pleased to find many 
rare species of plants spreading where I have carefully guarded them 
for some years. 

In addition to the orchids and ferns, I was much interested in the 
study of pyrolas and located stations for all except Pyrola minor. The 
other seven were all shown on our flower tables at once, all collected 
within our local range. Monotropa Hypopitys was found in a fruiting 
stage in September in St. Johnsbury. 

The richest locality that I visited was a small muddy pond about 
five miles from St. Johnsbury on the shores of which I found Glyceria 
canadensis, Phalaris arundinacea, Garex lanuginosa, Lysimachia thyrsi- 
flora, Myrica Gale, Pinus resinosa and, in the water, Rananculus aquata- 
lis var. capillaceous, all new to our local flora. At Stiles' Pond Eleo- 
charis acicularis and Polygonum arifolium were found growing pro- 
fusely. Polygonum, lapathifolium was found as a weed in a cultivated 
field and Salsola Kali var. tenuifolia grows abundantly by the highway 
just out of St. Johnsbury, toward Danville. A single plant of Panax 
quinqnefolium was found growing in a high cool maple wood in Sept. 



18 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

Evidently the last of a sturdy race that once inhabited that hill and 
had escaped the commercial ginseng hunter's greed. 

Voccinivm macrocarpon is now known to grow in a bog almost 
within the village limits and Artemisia Absinthium in a dry hill pas- 
ture in one of our rural school communities. Scirpus lineatus grows 
sparingly in damp soil near the St. Johnsbury golf links and Carex 
Tuckermani was found by Miss Shields in open woods near the village. 
In late October Ilex vertidllata in fruit was found by school children. 

On two trips to the Nine Island region at East Barnet, one on July 
7 and another August 16, many interesting finds were made supplement- 
ing those recorded by the club in 1915. Among the new species listed 
from these expeditions were Orobanache uniflora, Calamagrostis 
neglect a, Aster rimineus var. saxatilis. Ranunculus flamula var. reptans. 
Epipactis tesselata and Epipactis repens var. ophioides, Habenaria brac- 
teata and H. Hoolceri also Corallorrhiza maculata, Halenia deflexa. 
'Woodsia obtusa and Asplenium platyneuron. 

This is a wonderfully profitable region, but even more so is the 
Harvey's Pond region at West Barnet. From two brief trips there, I 
am convinced that the pond, the shores, the surrounding woods and 
nearby mountains hold untold treasures for the botanist as well as for 
the ornithologist. Some of the rare treasures from this region in early 
July are Microstylis monophyllos. Habenaria macrophylla. Monotropa 
Hypopitys. PyrOla chlorantha. Rhododendron maximum, beside no end 
of water plants which grow in the entrance to the pond. 

Another wonderful spot in northern Caledonia county is located 
on the road to West Burke and there all conditions combine, the high 
cool woods, the sphagnum swamp so shaky one does not dare to re- 
main long in one place, the almost bottomless pond and here in turn 
grow Epigaea repens. Andromeda glaucophylla, Chamaedaphne calycu- 
lata, Ledum groenlandicum. Kalmia angustifolia, Pyrola asarijolia var. 
incarnata. Sarracenia purpurea, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Calopogon 
pulchellus. Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum callitrix, and no end 
of others both precious and rare. 

These are a few of the results of last season's work by the bontan- 
ical department of the Fairbanks museum. From the various expe- 
ditions 46 new species were added to our local flora which covers a 
radius of five miles from the museum. Thirteen Vermont plants were 
added to our general herbarium. There were 786 species, including 22 
mosses and lichens, shown during the season on our flower tables. 
Many more might have been displayed except for the fact that when 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 19 

a species is rare or unusual I do not collect specimens until it becomes 
thoroughly established if possible to protect it. 

Two species have been added to the flora of Vermont. Mr. Balch 
has photographed 47 of the 51 species of orchids listed for Vermont 
beside many other rare plants, thus perpetuating their usefulness as 
well as herbarium specimens could, and leaving the plants to grow 
again and again in their native habitats. 



FOUR SUMMER MEETINGS OF THE HARTLAND 

NATURE CLUB 

Mrs. A. B. Morgan 

The first of these meetings was held in June at "The Highlands" 
when the Woodstock Bird Club was a guest of the Nature Club. Karl 
A. Pember, a member of the former club, showed a very complete 
collection of birds' eggs that was started 25 years ago, and his talk, 
partly reminiscent, was highly entertaining as well as instructive. 
Harold G. Rugg gave an illustrated talk on "The Hardy Fern Border," 
the specimens of English varieties of the lady fern being especially 
interesting. An expert from Washington explained the pine tree blight, 
advising that all currant and gooseberry bushes be eliminated in the 
vicinity of pine plantations. 

In July many nature lovers gathered in the garden of Miss Dar- 
ling's home where she gave a delightful talk on a collection of Alpine 
plants that Rev. S. G. Spear gathered in Switzerland as he and a 
friend tramped through the mountains. By means of an illustrated 
work on Alpine plants presented to the club by Mrs. Symonds of 
Huntington, L. I., she was able to classify all the species, numbering 
about 80 into 33 families. Several guests who had traveled in England 
and Switzerland gave personal observations that added greatly to the 
occasion. 

The annual meeting, which now takes the form of a picnic and 
roll-call, was held in Hartland village on the lawn of the Steele estate. 
Miss Sturtevant read an interesting and comprehensive report of the 
year's work, and letters from absent members were enjoyed. Miss 
Kittredge, collecting for Miss Billings, showed several specimens new 
or rare in Vermont. At roll-call each member responded with some 
observation of interest. Jay G. Underwood, fresh from a trip with Mr. 
Winslow and Mr. Rugg for additional stations for Aspidium Filix-mas 



*J0 Joint BULLETINS 4 and 5 

reported that this fern grows always in the vicinity of butternut trees 
and at a high elevation. The picnic table, decorated in patriotic colors 
and filled with tempting and experimental delicacies, was not the least 
of the attractions of this meeting. 

The September and October meetings were combined, and by in- 
vitation met with Mrs. W. H. Moore of Woodstock. Mrs. A. B. Morgan 
read a paper on "Definite Ecological Studies," which gave a careful ' 
exposition of the plants, animals and insects with their inter-relations 
as observed at "The Highlands" for the past nine years. Fully illus- 
trated by fresh and mounted specimens, it conveyed a clear idea of 
ecology. 

Mrs. W. E. Mack, who has a large herb garden, made her paper on 
"Garden Herbs: Their Culture and Use'' highly instructive by an ac- 
count of actual experiences, and a basket heaped high with bunches 
of fragment herbs caused exclamations of wonder and pleasure. Con- 
tributions by members included Mithridates paste, a compound of rue, 
juniper berries, figs and walnuts, rose conserve, rose drops and mint 
recipes. These gave spice to the occasion, which was one of the most 
delightful ever held by the club. 



A WORD CONCERNING XANTHIUMS 

Nellie F. Flynn 

The Xanthiums, or clotburrs are the subject of a monograph by 
Dr. Millspaugh and Mr. Sheriff of Chicago, which is now in the hands 
of the printer. 

I collected a bundle of the plants early in September, 1918, in re- 
sponse to an inquiry of Dr. Brainerd for information regarding a cer- 
tain species which had been collected by him and Prof. L. R. Jones 
on the shore of Lake Champlain in Burlington. My specimens, except 
a few collected in another locality, were all growing in a space of less 
than a mile and the monographers reported that I had five good 
species, a surprisingly large number for one locality. 

They mentioned X. leptoearpum* X. cnrvescens and X. chinense. 
It will be interesting for the members of the club to oe on the lookout 
for different forms of this genus in order that it may be given critical 
study in Vermont. The plants may be found on the shores of lakes, 
ponds and rivers and in waste places. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 21 

THE WOODSTOCK BIRD CLUB 

The Woodstock Bird Club, which is a branch of the Lucy Mackenzie 
Humane Society of Woodstock, has had only a year's experience but 
it is already recognized as doing something worth while. Winter feed- 
ing stations have been placed in the parks by the club and individuals 
throughout the town have fed the birds from shelves and trees. Es- 
pecially has the interest extended to the school children in the village 
and in the rural districts to feed and protect birds. 

Nesting boxes were placed in gardens and near houses and many 
of them were occupied by nuthatches, chickadees and several pairs 
of house wrens. This emphasized the fact that the birds will nest near 
our homes if they are provided with desirable nesting boxes, placed 
early enough in the spring for them to arrange for their housekeeping, 
and if the everlasting English sparrow will let them alone. We have 
never had wrens until this last season. 



BIRD LISTS 

RECORDS FOR ST. JOHNSBURY, 1917 

Inez Addie Hoive 

First Date Last Date 

Chickadee 

Goldfinch 

Barred Owl 

Screech Owl 

White-breasted Nuthatch 

Red-breasted Nuthatch 

Northern Shrike 

English Sparrow 

Downy Woodpecker 

Hairy Woodpecker 

Pileated Woodpecker 

Blue Jay 

Ruffed Grouse 

Brown Creeper 

Snow Bunting Jan. 2 Mar. 24 

Evening Grosbeak Jan. 6 May 18 

Tree Sparrow Jan. 7 « Apr. 5 

Redpoll Jan. 9 May 18 



22 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 



Canada Jay Jan. 

White-winged Crossbill Jan. 

Pine Grosbeak Jan. 

Pine Siskin Feb. 

Hudsonian Chickadee Feb. 

Horned Lark Feb. 

American Goshawk Feb. 

American Crow Mar. 

Cedar Waxwing Mar. 

Bluebird Mar. 

Robin Mar. 

Saw-whet Owl Mar. 

Song Sparrow Mar. 

Junco Mar. 

Bronzed Grackle Mar. 

Phoebe Mar. 

Broad-winged Hawk Apr. 

Canada Goose Apr. 

American Crossbill Apr. 

Marsh Hawk Apr. 

Red-winged Blackbird Apr. 

Prairie Horned Lark Apr. 

Red-tailed Hawk Apr. 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Apr. 

Fox Sparrow Apr. 

Vesper Sparrow Apr. 

Field Sparrow Apr. 

Cowbird Apr. 

Meadowlark Apr. 

Savannah Sparrow Apr. 

Flicker Apr. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk Apr. 

Hermit Thrush Apr. 

Sapsucker Apr. 

Winter Wren Apr. 

White-throated Sparrow Apr. 

Belted Kingfisher Apr. 

Fnglish Starling Apr. 

Myrtle Warbler Apr. 

Chipping Sparrow Apr. 

Least Flycatcher Apr. 



10 


Mar. 


6 


10 






11 


May 


18 


5 


May 


22 


14 






24 


Mar. 


22 


25 


Dec. 


7 


1 


Oct. 


24 


5 


Dec. 


8 


24 


Dec. 


24 


24 


Nov. 


25 


25 


• • • • • 


. . . 


26 


Oct. 


31 


26 


Oct. 


10 


28 


Oct. 


13 


31 


Oct. 


16 


3 


Sept. 


24 


3 


Nov. 


8 


3 






4 






5 


Sept. 


18 


5 






5 


Oct. 


13 


6 






6 






13 


Oct. 


16 


15 


Aug. 


31 


15 


Sept. 


21 


15 


Aug. 


22 


19 


Aug. 


22 


19 


Oct. 


1 


19 


Sept. 


11 


20 


Oct. 


6 


21 






21 


Sept. 


24 


22 


Oct. 


16 


22 


Sept. 


30 


22 


Sept. 


5 


22 


Oct. 


12 


23 


Nov. 


o 
o 


23 


Aug. 


22 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 



2'S 



Purple Finch Apr. 

Pine Warbler Apr. 

Yellow Warbler May 

Tree Swallow May 

Barn Swallow May 

Bank Swallow May 

White-crowned Sparrow May 

Black and White Warbler May 

American Osprey May 

Blue-headed Vireo May 

Great Blue Heron May 

Yellow Palm Warbler May 

Herring Gull May 

Cooper's Hawk May 

Spotted Sandpiper , May 

Chimney Swift May 

Wilson's Thrush May 

Olive-backed Thrush May 

Baltimore Oriole May 

Warbling Vireo May 

Bobolink May 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird May 

American Redstart May 

House Wren May 

Cape May Warbler May 

Magnolia Warbler May 

Black-throated Blue Warbler May 

Black-throated Green Warbler .... May 

Ovenbird May 

Blackburnian Warbler May 

Chestnut-sided Warbler May 

Maryland Yellowthroat May 

Bay-breasted Warbler May 

Black-poll Warbler May 

Kingbird May 

Yellow-throated Vireo May 

White-eyed Vireo May 

Parula Warbler May 

Cerulean Warbler May 

Catbird May 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak May 



23 


Sept. 


15 


28 






5 


Aug. 


25 


8 






8 


Sept. 


15 


8 


Aug. 


16 


11 






11 


Sept. 


15 


12 






12 






12 






14 






14 






16 






17 


Sept. 


3 


17 


Aug. 


30 


17 


Aug. 


27 


18. 






18 


Aug. 


21 


19 


Sept. 


21 


19 


Aug. 


16 


19 


Sept. 


o 
o 


20 


Aug. 


16 


20 


Sept. 


3 


20 


June 


4 


20 






20 






20 


Sept. 


5 


20 


Aug. 


22 


20 






20 


Aug. 


25 


20 


Sept. 


14 


20 


June 


4 


20 


June 


4 


20 


Aug. 


30 


20 


Sept. 


7 


20 






20 






20 






20 


Sept. 


24 


20 


Aug. 


28 



24 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

Great Crested Flycatcher May 20 Aug. 16 

Grasshopper Sparrow May 20 

Solitary Sandpiper May 21 

Rusty Blackbird May 22 Nov. 16 

Golden-crowned Kinglet May 22 Nov. 2 

Faves Swallow May 24 Aug. 31 

Sparrow Hawk May 24 Aug. 31 

Nashville Warbler May 24 

Canadian Warbler May 24 Aug. 31 

Scarlet Tanager May 25 

Duck Hawk May 27 

Black Duck May 27 

Greater Yellow Legs May 27 

Tennessee Warbler May 28 

Whip-poor-will May 30 

Black-billed'Cuckoo May 31 

Nighthawk May 31 Sept. 13 

Wood Pewee .• Tune 1 Sept. 3 

Indigo Bunting Tune 1 Aug. 12 

Swamp Sparrow June 1 

Connecticut Warbler Tune 1 Aug. 10 

Olive-sided Flycatcher June 2 

Brown Thrasher Tune 2 

Red-eyed Vireo June 2 Sept. 7 

Red-shouldered Hawk June 4 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher June 4 

Mourning Warbler June 6 

Trail's Flycatcher June 6 

Towhee Tune 8 

Water Thrush June 8 

Wilson's Warbler June 15 

Rough-legged Hawk June 17 

Upland Plover Tune 17 

Worm-eating Warbler Tune 24 

Purple Martin Tuly 10 

Least Sandpiper Aug. 16 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo Sept. 9 

American Bittern Sept. 18 

Wood Thrush Oct. 12 

American Merganser Nov. 23 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 25 

The above record is the second for the occurrence of the ceru- 
lean warbler at St. Johnsbury. The worm-eating warbler is an equally 
unusual record for Vermont. There is a specimen of this bird in the 
Fairbanks museum collection which was taken at St. Johnsbury. The 
olive-backed thrush is rare at St. Johnsbury. The record for the duck 
hawk is the first for St. Johnsbury as is that of the greater yellow 
legs. 



XOTES FOR 1918 

Few winter birds were observed during the extremely cold 
weather of the winter of 1917-1918. A flock of greater redpolls were 
seen about St. Johnsbury from March 3 to 12, inclusive. These were 
the only unusual winter visitors that I recorded. White-winged cross- 
bills were seen in small flocks April 2 to 6. 

On June 8 I saw a pair of rough-winged swallows In a mixed flock 
of barn and eave swallows. I saw them again on the 9th and a third 
time on the 21st of June. The last time they were alone. 

Three black-crowned night hercns were seen and heard on the 
shore of a small pond near the village on the evening of August 26th. 

On August 28 the unusual number of five yellow-billed cuckoos were 
seen feeding together on tent caterpillars on a wayside tree. 

One Hudsonian chickadee was observed in a deep, dark cedar swamp 
on October 24. During the present month, January, 1919, one has 
appeared four times at my feeding table with other chickadees. 

The first St. Johnsbury record for a snowy owl was made on De- 
cember 4, when I observed one in a swampy woods near one of our 
remote rural schools. 

Pine and evening grosbeaks appeared early in November, 1918, 
and are still very numerous January 27, 1919. 



BIRD MIGRATION AT STAMFORD 

Mary A. Sanford 

January, 1917: Bluejays, chicadees, tree sparrows. 

February: Pine grosbeaks, nuthatches, horned larks, snow bunt- 
ings. 

March: 9, crows; 20, starlings; 21, bluebirds, downy woodpeckers; 
24, robins; 25, rusty blackbirds, phoebes, meadowlarks; 26, juncos; 29. 
song sparrows; 31, bronze grackles. 



•JO Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

April: 11, brown creepers; 19, yellow redpoll warblers; 22, nickers. 

May: 3, barn swallows, chipping sparrows, white-throated spar- 
rows; 7, myrtle warbler; 9, purple finches; 15, tree swallows, field 
sparrows, bobolinks; 17, bank swallows; 18, chimney swifts, least fly- 
catchers; 19, catbirds, white-crowned sparrows; 20, redstarts, chestnut- 
sided warblers, blackburnian warblers, magnolia warblers, black and 
white warblers, pine warblers, black-throated blue warblers, blacks 
throated green warblers, ovenbirds, rose-breasted grosbeaks, brown 
thrashers, kingbirds; 23, Baltimore orioles, goldfinches, quail, vesper 
sparrows; 26, Wilson's thrushes, Maryland yellow-throats, spotted sand- 
pipers, eave swallows, red-winged blackbirds; 30, bay-breasted warblers, 
scarlet tanagers; 31, indigo buntings, blackpoll warblers. 

Pine grosbeaks were observed April 21, 1916, a very late date. 

THE RUTLAND LIST 

The Rutland migration list was kept as usual by D. E. Kent, G. H. 
Ross and G. L. Kirk. It showed 153 species for 1917 and 122 for 1918. 
Records of especial interest are mentioned elsewhere in this Bulletin. 



UTILIZATION OF OUR NATIVE FRUITS 

Mrs. A. B. Morgan 

The piquant flavor of all compounds made from native fruits 
comes quite as much from the delight of gathering them as from serv- 
ing the final product, and when their sparkling color or rich spiciness 
adds to a winter's meal, June fields or autumn's glory seem to have 
been caught and held for the occasion. 

It has been my privilege to experiment successfully with the useful 
side of our native fruits, and it occurs to me that others might like a 
brief guide in following a similar course. 

I begin the last week in June in my campaign and gather shad 
berries, taking them before they are fully ripe, both for their better 
cooking qualities and to get ahead of the birds. From them I prefer 
to make shad berry pie which is made like that of blueberry with a 
cup of sugar, a tablespoonful of flour and a generous pinch of salt. 
Cooked slowly and well in a crisp crust, the result is truly delicious. 
Perchance when you are out in search of these berries, you will find 
little beds of pasture strawberries glowing with fruit, and can gather 
enough for the first shortcake. It is hardly necessary to tell anyone 
how to use wild strawberries, but last year when we had literally 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 27 

bushels of them at "The Highlands," I bottled juice to combine later 
with currant and apple juice in the proportion of 3 parts strawberry to 
one of currant and two parts strawberry to one of apple. 

As is well known, in all jelly making the active principle called 
pectin must be present and may be supplied by using apple juice made 
from the pulp, skin and cores, or by using the white portion of orange 
peel that has been allowed to stand and then boiled in water. If at any 
time I have fruit juice that I wish to combine later with apple, I bot- 
tle it and then make the jelly fresh when I want it, the flavor and 
quality being then prime. This year I kept both apple and cherry juice 
till Christmas when I made it up to be served with several different 
Christmas dinners, the color being a sparkling, holly-berry red. In the 
same way I have used the juice of the pin cherry, and that from choke 
cherry when combined with an equal quantity of apple juice and 
flavored with favorite spices, makes a delicious venison jelly. Thorn 
apples, especially the fruit of macrosperma, the variety that grows so 
abundantly here, combined with tart apple juice makes a product of 
fine substance, and only surpassed in coloring by that made from 
the high bush cranberry. The fruit of this latter must be gathered 
before it is dead ripe and may be used alone or in combination. The 
flavor is marked, some say hitter, but has long been regarded of 
medicinal value, as well as has the elderberry which makes a wine- 
colored, sweet jelly, or, if preferred, a spiced wine that mellows with 
age and is good for invalids. 

The general rule for making wine from blackberries, grapes or elder- 
berries is this: 

Cover fruit with cold water and let stand 24 hours. Crush and 
strain, adding 3 pounds of sugar to 1 gallon of juice. Put it into wide- 
mouthed jars and skim frequently for several weeks, next put into 
cask till March and then strain and bottle. 

I have blackberry wine that has been kept for many years and 
possesses a rich flavor as well as a tonic quality. Blackberry-apple jelly 
is mild and pleasant and especially good to serve with sponge cake, 
while raspberry-currant jelly made in the proportion of 2 to 1 reaches, 
in my judgment, the highest state of jelly perfection. 

Plain raspberry juice sweetened to make a rich syrup may be bot- 
tled and used as a refreshing drink with the addition of spring water. 
If preferred, shrub or raspberry vinegar made by the addition of equal 
quantities of vinegar, berries and sugar may be used instead. Barberries 
cooked with sweet apples make a rich orange-red jelly which does not 
require so much sugar as most other fruit juices. Frost grapes make 



28 Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

a racy flavored juice and I prefer to sweeten it "the pint to the pound" 
to add to its richness and keeping qualities. Apple-grape jelly, 3 to 1, 
is of much better substance than when the grape is used alone. Care 
should be taken in not cooking the grapes beyond the point where the 
juice flows freely. Catchup made of 2 quarts of mashed grapes, enough 
vinegar to cover, heated and strained, then cooked with 1 cup of sugar, 
a teaspoonful each of cinnamon and cloves, and a dash of red pepper, 
makes a savory dressing. 

In my childhood one of the yearly events was to go to a swamp 
each August to gather the smooth gooseberry that grew in such quan- 
tities that big pailfuls were carried home, where my mother made 
rich preserves of them to be served later when we came home hungry 
from school. To the memory of that flavor and those bright days of 
family berrying parties may perhaps be ascribed my present delight 
in these little excursions with our native fruits. 



NOTES 

Some Extralimital Records 

Examination of a series of bulletins on bird migration, issued by 
the United States Bureau of Biological Survey, shews a number of extra- 
limital records for the occurrence of birds in this state which have 
not been published in Vermont literature. They are as follows: Wood 
ibis, YVilliston, 1897, G. H. Perkins; snowy egret, St. Albans, October, 
1890, C. D. Howe; sandhill crane, Lunenburg, Perkins and Howe; long- 
tailed jaeger, West Castleton, September 7, 1877, Howe. 

Winter Record for Mourning Dove 

According to Dr. Lucretius H. Ross of Bennington, a mourning dove 
was observed at Shaftsbury January 8, 1919. Robins, meadowlarks and 
sparrow hawks wintered at Bennington during the season of 1918-19. 

Success in Taming Chickadees 

Miss Jessie Gilman of Pomfret succeeded in taming chickadees 
until they would alight on her head and hands to get food. 

White Form of Lady's Slippeb 

Sylvia H. Bliss of East Calais reports the finding of a group of 
pure white Cypripedium hirsutum. She writes: "There are two small 
clumps of this white lady's slipper" in a swamp in the northeastern 
part of Calais. They grow in company with a large number of the 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Cli j:s L )( J 

showy lady's slipper, and I have found them at least three different 
seasons, one with an interval of a year or two between them when I 
did not visit the spot. They are vigorous and very beautiful. 

Addition to Vermont Hepatic List 

Miss Annie Lorenz of Hartford, Conn., writes of the finding of 
the hepatic, Marsupella Sullivantii (De Not) Evans at Mount Mansfield 
in July, 1917. This is new to Vermont. 

New Station for Panicum Tsugetorum 

Panicum tsugetorum Nash has been found growing in Tinmouth 
by Dana S. Carpenter of Middletown Springs. The plant was determined 
by Prof. A. S. Hitchcock. The site was a gravelly-clay roadside. 

Bohemian Waxwings at Hartland 

On October 30, 1917, a flock of Bohemian waxwings numbering 100 
or more, visited "Sky Farm," Hartland, Vt., Miss Nancy Darling's home, 
for mountain ash berries, and the next day, when they returned, Mrs. 
A. B. Morgan was present to observe their feeding. They kept them- 
selves in three squads — one in the ash tree eating berries and two on 
maple trees in the grove keeping watch. 

While feeding they were constantly shifting their positions, and 
some of the birds frequently lifted their wings in such a manner 
as to show white along the back edges of each wing. While settling 
down upon the ash trees, the birds made an odd squeaking sound of 
satisfaction and all the time while feeding they uttered little notes 
that implied contentment. Some years previously a flock of half a 
dozen or so visited the farm. 

An Interesting Orchid 

A rarely beautiful flowering of the large coral root orchis Coral- 
lorrhiza maculata was observed by Miss Darling and a visiting botanist 
while searching in Finley Glen, Hartland, on July 30, 1917, for Haoen- 
aria macrophylla. The plants occurred both singly and in groups, but 
all in full bloom, and some of the spikes, a foot or more high, were so 
crowded as to convey a sense of opulence. The butterfly form of the flow- 
ers suggested insects and rendered the plants almost uncanny, though 
very beautiful in their rose and madder-purple coloring. At the heart 
of each blossom was a spot of yellow dotted with magenta — the little 
column, which gave life and lustre to the whole. 

At first these leafless orchids were scarcely noticeable in the un* 
derbrush among the brown leaves of a former season, but, one by one, 



.')(» Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 

they appeared, after careful search, rising before the vision almost 
magically, sometimes alone, sometimes in clusters, and exhaling a 
subtle fragrance as of violets. It seems nothing short of a miracle 
that such beauty and delicacy can be developed from the defunct roots 
and leaves of other plants, with only here and there a ray of light. 



Another Nelson's Sparrow Record 
Nelson's sparrow, of which a note has been previously published 
in the bulletin, has appeared at Rutland in three consecutive seasons. 
The dates are: October 8, 1916; October 2, 1917; October 10, 1918. 
(Kirk.) 

Barrow's Goldeneye in Vermont 

A number of specimens of Barrow's goldeneye, the western form 
of the whistler duck, were collected on Lake Champlain during the 
fall of 1917. Birds in the hands of hunters were seen by D. E. Kent 
and G. L. Kirk. 

Big Flight of Shorebirds 

There was a heavy flight of shorebirds at East Pittsford pond on 
September 15, 1917. Among the species taken which are unusual in 
Vermont except on Lake Champlain were a black-bellied plover, semi- 
palmated plover, pectoral sandpiper, least sandpiper and semi-palmated 
sandpiper. (F. L. Osgood.) 

Cormorants in This State 

A double-crested cormorant was shot at Lake Bomoseen on October 
14, 1917. On the same day two were observed at Bridport on Lake 
Champlain. There are very few records for this bird in the state. 

A Laggard Teal 

A blue-winged teal was shot at Lake Bomoseen November 6, 1917. 
This duck is seldom seen in Vermont after September. 

Late Dates for Migrants 

Because of the continued mild weather migratory birds remained 
unusually late in northern New England during 1918. Some interest- 
ing records from Rutland when the last of the given species were 
seen are as follows: Whippoorwill and brown thrasher, September 23; 
October 3, black-throated blue, bay-breasted and black and white 
warbler; October 20, catbird; November 2, ruby-crowned kinglet; No- 
vember 21, rusty blackbird. 



Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 31 

California Plants Defy Jack Frost 

Mrs. Mary A. Loveland of Norwich writes: "A package of wild 
flower seeds sent me from California gave much pleasure as the plants 
grew well and blossomed. To my surprise they withstood frost better 
than some of our cultivated annuals. A bouquet was picked in Novem- 
ber. Among those identified were the California poppy, phacelia, lupine 
and clarkia." 

New Selaginella Station 

Harold G. Rugg of Hanover, N. H., collected Selaginella apus at 
Reading in August, 1918. This is the third Vermont station. 

Mr. Rugg also reports a new station for Aspidium filix-mas concern- 
ing which he writes: "It may be well to record my station for the 
male fern in Rochester. The plants were growing at an elevation of 
2,400 feet and very near some plants of Aspidium spinulosum. They 
were beside an old road which leads from the Rochester-Randolph gap 
to the ruined summit house on top of Mount Cushman. 

New Station for Eqtjisetum Pratense 
Clarence H. Knowlton of Hingham, Mass., while touring Vermont 
last summer (1918) called on J. G. Underwood at Hartland. Together 
they visited that famous botanical ground, Hart Island, and in the 
alluvial, sandy land on the bluff at the upper end of the island, under 
shrubs and vines, they collected an equisetum which Mr. Knowlton 
stated he believed was E. pratense. This identification has been con- 
firmed by Prof. M. L. Fernald. 

Nesting of Brown Creeper 
D. E. Kent of Rutland writes as follows in regard to the nesting 
of the brown creeper: "Nesting brown creepers are considered rare 
in and near Rutland county. Some half dozen years ago I found a nest 
at Pine's pond near Lake Bomoseen, where flooding had killed good 
sized trees. This was the only locality in which I had ever seen the 
bird in the nesting period until the spring of 1917 when I found them 
to be common about Chittenden dam in Chittenden. On June 1, 1918, 
Owen Durfee of Fall River, Mass., G. L. Kirk of Rutland and the writer 
were at the reservoir formed by the dam and we found that there were 
probably 10 to 12 pairs of creepers nesting in a flooded forest. Inunda- 
tion had caused the death of many large trees and in those which 
were in just the right stage of decay the bark hung loosely, forming 
ideal conditions for the peculiar homes of these birds. We found one 
nest containing six partly incubated eggs." 



32 



Joint Bulletins 4 and 5 



IN MEMORIAM 

MRS. NELLIE HART WOODWORTH 

Harold Goddard Rugg 

Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, a member of the Vermont Bird Club r 
for many years, died March 12, 1918 at Sarasota, Fla. Mrs. Woodworth 
was born in East Berkshire, Vt., August 17, 1847. She spent a large 
part of her life in East Berkshire and in St. Albans. She remained 
in Florida during the winter for the last few years but always returned 
to Vermont for the summer. The last meeting of the club which she at- 
tended was the one at Franklin. 

Mrs. Woodworth contributed many articles on birds to various 
magazines and to the Boston Transcript. She also wrote bird poems 
which were published. She was an intimate friend of John Burroughs 
and at her death he said: "I can indeed pay a heartfelt tribute to my 
friend for many years, Mrs. Nellie Hart Woodworth, whose recent death 
comes to me with a distinct feeling of loss. I know her to have been 
a woman of fine mind and a warm womanly heart. She had a rare 
gift for making friends and keeping them. She was a sincere lover 
of nature and knew the birds as well as her dearest friends." 



ELROY KEST 

George L. Kirk 

Elroy Kent of East Wallingford, who was affiliated with the Ver- 
mont Botanical Club since the first years of its existence, died suddenly 
at his home January 29, 1918. During more than 30 years of his busy 
life as a farmer, Mr. Kent devoted such spare time as he had at his de- 
mand to the pursuit of his hobby, botany. His home being unusually well 
situated for studying a well-varied flora, he thoroughly explored the ter- 
ritory for miles around and he accumulated an herbarium which is 
complete from a local standpoint. This collection, which is of especial 
interest in that it represents the floras of Spectacle Pond and other 
cold ponds and bogs, is still at Mr. Kent's late home. 

While the higher forms of plants were the subjects of Mr. Kent's 
chief study, he also took a great interest in lichens and fungi. 

Mr. Kent is survived by two sons, Duane E. Kent of Rutland and 
Wyatt A. Kent of Contact, Nev., and a daughter, Mrs. R. H. Mahaffy 
of Wallingford. The sons are students of bird life. 




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